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 A Sprinkling of

Gem Information

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Pronounced KAL-CED-ON-EE

Chalcedony has a waxy lustre and comes in a great variety of colours including Blue, White, Tan, Green, Red, Grey, Black, Yellow and Brown.

Different varieties of Chalcedony have individual names including Agate, Bloodstone, Crysoprase, Carnelian, Jasper.

Chalcedony was used during the Renaissance to promote Health and Safety.

Major sources of Chalcedony are Brazil, India, Madagascar, Mexico, South Africa, Tanzania and USA.

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Citrine is a yellow variety of quartz that takes its name from citron, the French word for lemon.

Citrine is a beautiful transparent gemstone and one of November's birthstones.

Citrine was first used in jewellery in Greece from the end of the 4th century to the end of the 1st century BC.

In antiquity Citrine was believed to be the gemstone of happiness

and used as a protective talisman against evil thoughts.

Among crystal healers, Citrine is said to be especially useful in stimulating mental capacities,

enhancing creativity and intuition and bolstering self-confidence.

Citrine range in colour from  pastel lemon yellow, golden yellow, madarin orange and madeira red.

Most of the Citrine mined today comes from Uruguay, Brazil and many African nations.

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Fluorite is known as the world's most colourful gemstone.

Fluorite crosses the entire colour spectrum, from deep purple to crimson red, blue to green and orange to lemon yellow.

According to crystal healers Fluorite brings rationality to intuitive qualities. It is believed to offer stabilising energy, facilitating order, balance and healing.

Fluorite is also believed to be excellent for fostering clarity of mind, objectivity, concentrations and meditation.

The most common colours are violet, blue, green, yellow, brown, pink and bluish black.

Colour Change Fluorite is mined in Bihar, India and shows a dramatic change from green to purple. 

Colour change gems are those that distinctly change their colour when viewed under two different light sources.

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With its gentle pink energy, Morganite attunes to the heart and the Heart Chakra.

It cleanses the emotional body of stress and anxiety,

old wounds and hidden traumas, and enkindles lightness within the spirit,

as if a burden has been lifted,

 and can be a catalyst for moving forward in peace and confidence.

Morganite is a pink semi-precious stone belonging to the beryl mineral family

which also includes the more common beryls like Emerald and Aquamarine.

Available in a variety of colors including pink, rose, peach, purple and salmon,

the pink and rose-colored stones are the most sought after today.

Discovered in California in the early 1900’s, and soon thereafter in Madagascar,

this crystal was known as Pink Beryl until 1911 when,

at the suggestion of George F. Kunz, the chief gemologist at Tiffany & Co.,

it was renamed Morganite in honor of the legendary

financier and gem collector J. P. Morgan,

for his gemological and mineral contributions

to the American Museum of Natural History in New York, USA.

Morgan was also an avid customer and collector for Tiffany’s,

where much of the Morganite was sold at the time.

Morganite has been found in a number of locations in the world,

including Madagascar, California in the USA, Brazil,

Mozambique, Namibia, Afghanistan and Pakistan.

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Shining with a bright green glow even at night,

Peridot was called the 'gem of the sun' by the ancient Egyptians

and the 'evening emerald' by Romans.

Peridot was a favourite gemstone of Cleopatra and was 

historically mistaken for Emerald.

The pronunciation of this popular gem is often confused and should be pronounced 


Popular in early Greek and Roman jewellery,

Peridot has been coveted since 1500 BC when the Egyptians 

started mining it on Zeberget Island about 50 miles off the Egyptian coast in the Red Sea.

Peridot is the gem variety of Olivine and colours range from golden lime green to rich grass green.

Peridot is believed to bring restful sleep, good health and peaceful relationships.

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Green Amethyst is traded under a variety of names and is sometimes mistaken

for other gemstones such as Peridot and Tourmaline.

The green variety of quartz, Green Amethyst is also known as vermarine,

green quartz and lime citrine or by its gemological name, Prasiolite.

Green amethyst is believed by crystal healers to facilitate the gap

between the physical and spiritual aspects of life,

attracting prosperity through strengthening the mind, emotions and will.

With beautiful colours ranging from pastel to deep forest green,

Green Amethyst is a tough gemstone making ideal for everyday wear.

Prasiolite or Green Amethyst is mostly mined in Brazil.

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Sunstone has been coveted since antiquity for its ability to guide its wearer through the journey of life.

Also known as Aventurine feldspar or Helliolite, the name comes to us from the Greek helios for sun and lithos for stone.

An ancient gem, Sunstone has allegedly been discovered in Viking burial mounds. 

It is thought that the Vikings actually used the light-polarising properties of a stone

to tell the direction of the sun on cloudy days.

Native Americans in Oregon used Sunstone for trade and barter.

Crystal healers believe Sunstone to be useful for adding personal insight and alleviating depression.

Sunstones range in colour from colourless through pale yellow, soft pink and red to deep teal green.

Major sources are India, Madagascar, Norway, Russia, Tanzania, Tibet & USA

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Spinel was once mistaken for ruby and sapphire,

but it's no impostor, rather a 'master of disguise'.

One of the gem kingdom's best kept secrets, Spinel is treasured for its eternal brilliance and

spectacular colours.

Whether your fascination with gems is for their beauty,

rarity or history, Spinel is a superb addition to your jewellery collections.

Red Spinel's near identical resemblance to ruby result in it being a prodigious, albeit accidental feature in many of the world's most famous gem collections, including the Vatican's and the Crown Jewels of Russia, Iran and England.

Both the legendary 352 carat Timur Ruby and the 170 carat Black Prince'e Ruby which feature in the British Imperial State Crown proved to be red spinel.

Spinel occurs in many colours including red, blue, pink, orange and a plethora of other fancy colours.

Spinels com from a handful of sources including Tajikistan, Sri Lanka, Madagascar,

Tunduru in Tanzania's remote southeast and central Vietnam's Luc Yen region.

Tanzania's Mahenge red spinel is increasingly acclaimed for its bright red hues

and a brilliance and lustre that defy verbal description.

Occasionally colour change varieties are found, turning colour from a light grey blue in daylight

to a light purple under candlelight.

Star spinels are also known, particularly from Sri Lanka.

Cat's eye spinels are extremely rare, with only a handful of specimens known.

Spinel is thought to protect the wearer from harm, to reconcile differences and to soothe away sadness.

In 2016 Spinel was added to official Birthstone lists for the month of August.

Though Spinels are more affordable they are rarer than rubies.

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Demand for Tanzanite has rocketed in recent years, outstripping sales of all other coloured gemstones except Sapphire.

A thousand times rarer than Diamonds and with a little over a decade of mine life remaining,

Tanzanite is the gem of the millennium.

In recognition of its popularity, in 2002 Tanzanite was added to the jewellery industry's official birthstone list,

the first time the list had been changed since 1912.

This saw Tanzanite join Turquoise and Zircon as accepted birthstones for December.

Exclusively mined at just one place in the world, Merelani in Tanzania, it is coveted because of its rarity.

Tanzanite has the ability to reflect different colours across several spectrums, ranging from light blues to deeper indigos and violets.

It's estimated that at the current rate of mining the available supply of naturally occurring Tanzanite

will be depleted within the next 10- 20 years.

The current generation will be the last one able to purchase stones from the primary market, as a result Tanzanite is known as "The gemstone of a Generation".

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If you are on a journey of spiritual change,

Topaz is believed by crystal healers

to make an excellent companion.

It teaches you to trust in the universe, 

aiding you to fully recognise the magical laws of

attraction, increasing your ability to manipulate them.

Topaz is also believed to strengthen confidence and to help you make correct decisions 

by giving you the courage to follow through on choices,

thereby changing dreams into reality.

The variety of topaz hues includes colorless, light blue, yellow, orange, pink,

violet, brown and, very rarely, red.

The vast majority of blue topaz seen today is the permanent result

of treating colorless topaz with irradiation and heating.

The rainbow effect seen in “Mystic Topaz” is created by

coating colorless topaz with a thin artificial film.

Brazil, is one of the most important sources for high-quality topaz,

which has been mined there for more than two centuries.

Today, other major sources of this November birthstone include Pakistan, Namibia,

Nigeria, Madagascar, Mexico, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and the United States,

as well as the historic Russian localities.

To clean this November birthstone, do not use steam cleaning or ultrasonic cleaners. 

Warm, soapy water works best.

High heat or sudden temperature changes can cause internal breaks in topaz.

The coating on Mystic Topaz can withstand normal wear,

but abrasive cleaners or buffing wheels will remove it.

Only a mild soap solution should be used to clean a topaz treated in this manner.

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Turquoise was one of the first gemstones ever mined, dating back to 6000 BC in Egypt's Sinai Peninsula.

Turquoise has been used for thousands of years as jewellery by the ancient Egyptians.

In Mexico the Aztecs began mining Turquoise between 900-1000 AD often fashioning it into elaborate masks.

By the 16th century the cultures of the American southwest were using Turquoise as currency.

Turquoise is almost always opaque and polished as cabochons.

In the USA turquoise jewellery has long  been produced by Native Americans.

Crystal healers believe it is a healing stone for emotional and mental health. 

The major sources of Turquoise are China, India, Iran, Mexico, Tibet and USA.

The colours range from Bluish green to Sky blue and is often mottled with veins of brown limonite or black manganese oxide.

Turquoise is the Zodiac birthstone for Sagittarius

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Zircon has been found in some of the most ancient archaeological sites.

It has appeared in literature and the gem trade under a variety of names including

Jargon, Jacinth, Matura Diamond, Starlite, Hyacinth and Ligure.

Traditionally Zircon is a gem of purity and innocence.

Zircon is believed to promote inner peace

while providing the wearer with wisdom, honour and riches.

Zircon's popularity grew dramatically in the 16th century

when Italian artisans featured the gem in jewellery designs.

Although Zircon's existence predates Cubic Zirconia by centuries,

Zircon is often unfairly confused with Cubic zirconia

which is a cheap man-made diamond substitute that resembles

colourless Zircon and has a similar sounding name.

While Zircon may also be used as an excellent diamond substitute

it is valuable in its own right.

The major sources for Zircon are Australia, Burma, Cambodia,

Nigeria, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Thailand & Vietnam.

Zircon comes in Blue, Green, Honey, Red, White, Yellow and Colourless.

Zircon is the birthstone of December.

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